Thyroid gland is largest gland in endocrine system. Thyroid gland situated in neck. Main function of thyroid gland is producing hormones – T3[tri iodothyronin] and T4[tetraiodothyronine] which controls body metabolism, thyroid gland also produce calcitonin which plays a role in calcium homeostasis. The hormonal output from thyroid is regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH ] produced by anterior pituitary, which itself regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone [TRH] produced by hypothalamus.
The most common problems of thyroid gland consist of an overactive thyroid gland referred to as hyperthyroidism and underactive thyroid gland referred to as hypothyroidism. When there is fluctuation in thyroid hormones which causes thyroid problems. Normal range should be-
T3 – 80-230 ng/dl in adults
83-280 ng/dl in baby and old children
32-250 ng/dl in new born
T4 – 5-14 mg/dl in adult
5.6-16.6 mg/dl in babies and older children
9.8-22.6 mg/dl in new born
TSH – 0.4-6 mg/dl
When TSH is less than 0.4 mg/dl condition is called as hyperthyroidism .when TSH is more than 6 mg/dl condition is called as hypothyroidism.
HYPOTHYROIDISM: Underactive thyroid gland
In this condition, TSH more than 6 mg/dl, T3 is normal and T4 is decreased or normal.
SYMPTOMS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM:
Initially it may be asymptomatic
HYPERTHYROIDISM: (Overactive thyroid gland)
In this condition, TSH will be less than 0.4mg/dl, T3 and T4 increased. Hyperthyroidism may cause thyrotoxicosis. some patient may develop thyrotoxicosis as a result of inflammation of thyroid gland[ thyroiditis]
SYMPTOMS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM:
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is attacked by a variety of cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
DIAGNOSING THYROID CONDITIONS:
Diagnosis of various thyroid disease and conditions involves clinical examination, blood tests, and in some cases, imaging tests and/or biopsy. There are different tests and procedures used to diagnose the following thyroid problems:
INVESTIGATIONS FOR THYROID PROBLEM:
THYROID BLOOD TESTS-The blood tests that may be done as part of a thyroid diagnosis include the following:
Nuclear Scan / Radioactive Iodine Uptake (RAI-U) – which can tell whether a person has Graves’ disease, toxic multinodular goiter, or thyroiditis.
CT scan – to help detect and diagnose a goiter, or larger thyroid nodules.
MRI / Magnetic Resonance Imaging – to evaluate the size and shape of the thyroid
Thyroid Ultrasound – to evaluate nodules, lumps and enlargement of your gland. Ultrasound can tell whether a nodule is a fluid-filled cyst, or a mass of solid tissue.
THYROID BIOPSY/ASPIRATION-A needle biopsy, also known as fine needle aspiration (FNA) is used to help evaluate lumps or cold nodules.
OTHER DIAGNOSTIC TESTS – Iodine Patch Tests, Saliva Testing, Urinary Testing, Basal Body Temperature Testing.
TREATMENT FOR THYROID PROBLEM IN POSITIVE HOMEOPATHY:
Positive homeopathy treats Thyroid problem positively by giving constitution medicine. Homeopathic medicines make diseased man to normal state.
“Homeopathic sweet pills kills the ills”
It helps to increase immune system in body to fight against disease. Homeopathy medicine acts on hypothalamus and brings thyroid hormones to normal range.