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Homeopathy with you during journeys

It is essential to be cautious and careful regarding our health especially during the journeys. Most of us make some journeys from time to time. Some of us would have to travel regularly on some business or work. Some plan for long tours during the holiday vacation, especially during the summer time. This is the time when we have to be extra careful for our health. We cannot postpone our journeys fearing the heat or adverse climates. But instead of that, we can take some precautionary measures in case we face a problematic situation during the journeys.

Homeopathy will always be helpful for you during the journeys. Especially during the long journeys, most people, especially the elderly ones may face some kind of health problem and it is best to have the Homeopathic remedies at hand to be safe. There are some Homeopathic drugs that you can keep with you or suggest your family and friends to take with them during journeys. These would help us during some common issues we may face during travelling. Here are some issues and their Homeopathic remedies.

  • FOR NAUSEA AND SLEEPLESSNESS: We often experience the feeling of nausea and sleeplessness especially during long journeys. Some people would regularly feel this during long distance flights. For this kind of problem, the best Homeopathic solution is CocculusIndicus. We can take this drug with a potency of 200 for excellent results and relief.
  • INDIGESTION PROBLEMS: These are most common during the journeys. Change of weather, food, and atmosphere may sometimes bring an effect to the digestion. Some people will have relatively less resistant power and these would be most vulnerable in these situations. But Homeopathy helps you there. There is a drug named Nux Vomica that will help you greatly during the journeys. Taking it for 3 consecutive days during the journeys with a potency of 30 would definitely ensure safety and relief from these problems.
  • LONG JOURNEY PHOBIA: Some of the people would feel some fear and nervousness during the long journeys. This is more of a psychological/neurological problem than a physical one. But Homeopathy can help you there too. The Homeopathic drug named Argentum Nitricum will calm the nerves and ensure smooth journeys.
  • HEAD SPIN: This symptom is most commonly observed during the people who travel by road in cars or buses. The frequent stopping and starting may cause their head spin and may also lead to vomiting. For those kinds of situations, there is a Homeopathic solution in the form of Petroleum. Yes, you read that right! But this is not the petroleum fuel you must be thinking of. It’s a Homeopathic drug named that way and 200 potency of petroleum would give best results.
  • STOMACHACHE – MOTIONS: The change in food and atmosphere may cause this problem. First, it is important that you take care of the kind of food you eat during the journeys. Some people who have less resistance power would be affected and for those people, the Homeopathic remedy would be Podophyllum which should be taken once per hour.
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Enjoy a healthy summer

It’s summer time! Most of us would be planning for vacation and enjoyment but the heat and its effects would always be in the back our minds making us to be extra cautious and quite rightly so. Well, who says that we cannot enjoy the summer without getting affected from the heat? By taking in some healthy fruits and vegetables that are abundant in this time of the year and avoiding some foods that cause problems, we can enjoy a healthy summer.

Let us see some of the diet tips that would make our summer enjoyable.

  • The first one any would say is take in large amounts of water. The heat would slurp away the fluids in the body and we must make sure we are compensating for that loss by drinking lots and lots of water as frequently as possible. Also, take care of the quality of water you drink. Make sure it is filtered well.
  • Avoid alcoholic beverages and liquids with high sugar content. These would make you lose more amounts of fluids through urination. It is not advised to take more soft drinks too. They reduce the calcium and protein levels in the body.
  • We all like to drink chilled water especially in the hottest of days. Do you know that does not help you at all although you may cool for a short time? It will affect your blood vessels. It is advised not to drink very chilled liquids especially when you just arrive from under the hot sun.
  • Plan your day in such a way that you won’t stress much during the times of maximum heat. Make sure that liquids are available in your closest proximity in case you work in the heat.
  • The meals you take should be abundant in nutrients and less in fat content.
  • Fruits basically are of two kinds. Dried and Fresh. Always prefer the fresh ones to the dried fruits.
  • We all love salads. Include as many healthy fruits and vegetables in the salads and take them regularly.
  • Butter milk, coconut water, and lemon juice always keep you cool.
  • Oily foods are always dangerous and especially during the summer. Make sure you take as less oily foods as possible.

Following all the above tips would make you lead a healthy summer for sure. It’s the right way to tackle the heat and humidity. Take good care of your health and summer will automatically become enjoyable.

 

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womens-health-capital

Womens health is her capital

Key facts

  • On average, women live six to eight years longer than men globally.
  • In 2007, women’s life expectancy at birth was more than 80 years in 35 countries, but only 54 years in the WHO African Region.
  • Girls are far more likely than boys to suffer sexual abuse.
  • Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among adolescent girls in high- and middle-income countries.
  • Essentially all (99%) of the half a million maternal deaths every year occur in developing countries.
  • Breast cancer is the leading cancer killer among women aged 20–59 years in high-income countries.
  • Globally, cardiovascular disease, often thought to be a “male” problem, is the leading killer of women.

 

Eliza Flagg Young, MD, a nineteenth century physician, once said, “Every woman is born a doctor. Men have to study to become one.” Although this may be a controversial statement, what isn’t controversial is that women tend to be the primary health care providers in most families. In the vast majority of homes women are responsible for watching over the health needs of the children, and by their shopping and cooking, they are responsible for fulfilling the nutritional needs of the family.

Infancy and childhood (0-9 years)

Globally, girls under five years are more likely to be overweight than boys, which – together with obesity – may lead to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders and some cancers later in life.

Pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria are the main causes of death during the first five years of life, with malnutrition being a major factor.

Adolescent girls (10-19 years)

Pregnancy-related complications are a leading cause of death among girls aged 15–19 years in developing countries; unsafe abortion – provided by unskilled persons in unhygienic conditions – contributes substantially to these deaths.

Reproductive age (15-44 years) and adult women (20-59 years)

 

*MENSTRUATION– A woman experiences a normal phenomenon called the menstrual cycle. Regular loss of blood from uterus occurs every 26 to 35 days (more or less monthly) in every normal non-pregnant woman prior to menopause.

a woman may experience premenstrual syndrome(PMS) and she may have menstrual crampsat the onset of her menstrual flow.PMS is group of symptoms which occurs before menstrual cycle like irritability, nervousness, cramps, headache and bloating, etc

Every step of a woman’s menstrual cycle is controlled by Hormones. Any imbalance in this hormones can result in heavy flow, irregular menses, scanty flow, too long or no periods.

Underlying conditions, which may include POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME and ENDOMETRIOSIS , need to be medically evacuated.

*FERTILITY, BIRTH CONTROL, and INFERTILITY

Fertility is theEvery woman who wishes to use birth control needs to decide which method is best suited for her. She must also determine which methods offer her the most protection against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection and AIDS.  Ability to bear children. But most women prevent unwanted pregnancy  by using birth control pills.

The opposite of fertility is, of course, Infertility , or the inability to bear children. Female infertility tends to become more of a problem as a woman gets older, especially after age 35. Irrespective of age, a woman and her partner need to be medically evaluated by a physician.

*PREGNANCY

A well planned pregnancy is always worthy healthy child. The ideal time to start learning about pregnancy is not when a woman is already pregnant. In order for a future mother to maximize her chances of having a healthy baby, she should to know what she can do before she conceives and then what to do after she learns she is pregnant.

She needs to know about those diseases that can complicate a pregnancy by their existence or their treatment, such as depression, epilepsy, thyroid disease,asthma,lupus,hypertension or diabetes.

There are number of prenatal test to be done to prevent complication during pregnancy

*VAGINITIS

Vaginitis is an inflammatory condition in the vagina that is primarily the result of infection (i.e., from Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, or Chlamydia trachomatis) or exposure to an irritant (chemical or allergic). Other factors that can disrupt the ecological balance in the vagina are a high sugar diet, birth control pills, and certain hormonal changes, including those caused by pregnancy. The symptoms of vaginitis generally include an abnormal vaginal discharge and itching or burning pains

*FIBRIOD

Fibroids are noncancerous growths in or on the walls of the uterus which can lead to abnormal uterine bleeding, painful intercourse, and bladder and bowel pressure. Fibroids are most common in women in their 40s and early 50s. Not all women with fibroids have symptoms. Fibroids also can put pressure on the bladder, causing frequent urination, or the rectum, causing rectal pressure. Should the fibroids get very large, they can cause the abdomen (stomach area) to enlarge, making a woman look pregnant.

*CYSTITIS (BLADDER INFECTION)

Another extremely common condition for which womens do suffer more is urinary tract infection. Cystitis means inflammation of the bladder. It is usually caused by a urine infection. Some women have recurring bouts of cystitis.one can prevent cystitis by maintaining hygiene,drinking lots of fluids to flush out bladder frequently, wiping your  anus  from front to back. Wear cotton underwear and change daily. Do not wear tight-fitting trousers or tights

*MENOPAUSE

Menopause is stop of menstrual cycle. Menopause is a normal part of life, just like puberty, (start of menses) It is the time of your last period, but symptoms can begin several years earlier. Some symptoms of menopause can last for months or years after. Changing levels of estrogen and progesterone, which are two female hormones made in your ovaries, might lead to these symptoms. –

Hot flushes,

Trouble Sleeping,

Mood Swings,

Vaginal Dryness,

Less Interest in Sex,

Forgetfulness,

Urinary Incontinence (unintentional loss of urine),etc

Menopause, or the “change of life,” is different for each woman. Menopause is not a disease that has to be treated. But you might need help if symptoms like hot flashes bother you. Try to keep track of when hot flashes happen—a diary can help. You might be able to use this information to find out what triggers your flashes and then avoid those triggers. When a hot flash starts, try to go somewhere cool.

*OSTEOPOROSIS and  HEART DISEASE

Two common health problems can start to happen at menopause, and you might not even notice.

 

Osteoporosis : Day in and day out, your body is busy breaking down old bone and replacing it with new healthy bone. Estrogen helps control bone loss, and losing estrogen around the time of menopause causes women to lose more bone than is replaced. In time, bones can become weak and break easily. This condition is called osteoporosis. Talk to your doctor to see if you should have a bone density test to find out if you are at risk. Your doctor can also suggest ways to prevent or treat osteoporosis.

Heart disease. After menopause, women are more likely to have heart disease. Changes in estrogen levels may be part of the cause. But, so is getting older. As you age, you may gain weight and develop other problems, like high blood pressure. These could put you at greater risk for heart disease. Be sure to have your blood pressure and levels of triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol checked regularly. Talk to your doctor to find out what you should do to protect your heart.

 

Staying healthy after menopause may mean making some changes in the way you live.

Eat a healthy diet, low in fat, high in fiber, with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, as well as all the important vitamins and minerals.

Make sure you get enough calcium and vitamin D—in your diet or with vitamin/mineral supplements. Learn what your healthy weight is, and try to stay there.

Do weight-bearing exercise, such as walking, jogging, or dancing, at least 3 days each week for healthy bones. But try to be physically active in other ways for your general health.

*CERVICAL CANCER
Cervical cancer is the most common type of cancer among women, with virtually all cases linked to genital infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top of the vagina.

A woman’s sexual habits and patterns can increase her risk of developing cervical cancer. Risky sexual practices include:

  • Having sex at an early age
  • Having multiple sexual partners
  • Having a partner or many partners who are active in high-risk sexual activities

Risk factors for cervical cancer include:

  • Not getting the HPV vaccine
  • Being poor
  • Women whose mothers took the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) during pregnancy in the early 1960s to prevent miscarriage
  • Weakened immune system

Most of the time, early cervical cancer has no symptoms. Symptoms that may occur include:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause
  • Vaginal discharge that does not stop, and may be pale, watery, pink, brown, bloody, or foul-smelling
  • Periods that become heavier and last longer than usual

Cervical cancer may spread to the bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver. Often there are no problems until the cancer is advanced and has spread. Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer may include:

  • Back pain
  • Bone pain or fractures
  • Fatigue
  • Leaking of urine or feces from the vagina
  • Leg pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Pelvic pain
  • Single swollen leg
  • Weight loss

Get regular Pap smears as often as your health care provider recommends. Pap smears can help detect early changes, which can be treated before they turn into cervical cancer.

*OSTEOARTHRITIS- Osteoarthritis is a normal result of aging. It is also caused by “wear and tear” on a joint. Before age 55, OA occurs equally in men and women. After age 55, it is more common in women.

  • OA tends to run in families.
  • Being overweight increases the risk of OA in the hip, knee, ankle, and foot joints because extra weight causes more wear and tear.
  • Fractures or other joint injuries can lead to OA later in life.
  • Jobs that involve kneeling or squatting for more than an hour a day put you at the highest risk. Jobs that involve lifting, climbing stairs, or walking also put you at risk.
  • Playing sports that involve direct impact on the joint (such as football), twisting (such as basketball or soccer), or throwing also increase the risk of arthritis.

Pain and stiffness in the joints are the most common symptoms. The pain is often worse after exercise and when you put weight or pressure on the joint. The phrase “morning stiffness” refers to the pain and stiffness you may feel when you first wake up in the morning. Stiffness usually lasts for 30 minutes or less. It is improved by mild activity that “warms up” the joint.

Some people might not have symptoms, even though x-rays show the changes of OA. No blood tests are helpful in diagnosing OA.

An x-ray of affected joints will show a loss of the joint space. In advanced cases, there will be a wearing down of the ends of the bone and bone spurs.

Staying active and getting exercise helps maintain joint and overall movement.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Homeopathy system is a wholistic system of science which works on the basic principle “ similia similibus curantur’’ ie like cures the like. Homeopathy is derived from Greek word homeo means like, pathy means sufferings. It was discovered and founded by German physician Dr Samuel Hahnemann (1755 -1843 ) . He was very much dissatisfied with other modes of treatment which were very cruel and crude during his time. So in the year of 1796, he discovered homeopathy. It is the most modern and new system to be discovered.Homeopathy system is based on the fact that, substances that produces symptoms of sick in an healthy individuals will have the capacity to produce curative effect when given to sick people with similar set of symptoms in very dilute and minute quantities.

Homeopathy treatment is based on totality of symptoms of the individuals. which gives constitutional characteristics.

Totality of the symptoms of the persons includes:

  • Genetic make up.
  • Mental make up.
  • Physical built.
  • Generalities.
  • Persons tolerance to heat and cold.
Homeopathic remedies are prepared by unique process of potentisation and surccussion. Homeopathic dosages will be in minute form, but sufficient enough to stimulate the persons genetic code and bring about the effective changes and thus increases the persons immunity and makes individual healthy.*WHY TO OPT HOMEOPATHY?

Homeopathic medicines are the drugs that lead to effective relief from the health problems, without leading to side effects.

Life for a woman today is definitely challenging! The demands are many – a mother, a sister, a daughter and a lover. Finding the time and energy to fulfill these roles and cope with your own needs can be difficult and can eventually take its toll on your health.

Homeopathy offers endless possibilities for women’s health! It is beneficial for the full range of emotional, mental and physical problems that a woman is likely to experience throughout her life.

Teenagers
During the teen years homeopathy can help with the hormonal changes of puberty and the emotional upheavals which frequently occur as they make the transition to womanhood.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy is a whole area of complex emotional and physical changes were symptoms are particularly difficult to treat with conventional medicine. Homeopathy offers a safe alternative to both mother and child through pregnancy, into childbirth and even during breastfeeding.

Menopause
During and after the menopause the hormones undergo a huge upheaval with some women faring better than others. Homeopathy can help with the associated symptoms such as hot flushes, menstrual irregularities, incontinence and insomnia.

Menstrual problems
The menstrual cycle is at the very centre of our being as women. Generally the hormonal system maintains its own balance, however when out of balance the symptoms can cause great distress both emotionally and physically.

Homeopaths understand that menstruation does not induce uncontrollable emotions, but simply lowers a woman’s ability to repress genuine, often difficult emotions, which are already present. Homeopathy can help regulate the dramatic fluctuations and associated PMS/PMT symptoms as well as heavy or absent periods, or difficulties in conceiving.

Infertility
Homeopathy is very beneficial for helping with a range of Infertility problems.It can be used alone or alongside conventional fertility treatment and is a safe and natural way to boost the functioning of the reproductive system.

There are many factors that affect fertility levels such as a hormonal imbalance,polycystic ovaries or endometriosis. There may also be less obvious problems that can contribute to infertility such as depression, fear of conceiving, stress or dietary problems. These issues and many of the trials and frustrations that couples go through trying to get pregnant can successfully benefit from homeopathic treatment.

Because homeopathic medicines are considerably more amenable to home care than are conventional drugs, it is predictable that American women have had a history of interest in homeopathy. Likewise today, the vast majority, approximately two thirds, of homeopathic patients and purchasers of homeopathic products are women. And today, there are approximately 300 homeopathic study groups, the significant majority of which are led by women and participated in by women. There is one simple reason why so many women, past and present, have sought out homeopathic medicine: it is a safer and more effective method of healing themselves and their families. Because women tend to seek professional medical care more than men do, they also tend to experience more of its dangers as well as its benefits. When women reach the limits of modern medical expertise and experience some of the harsh side effects of modern medical practices, it is certainly understandable that they seek out alternative health methods such as homeopathic medicine.

Conventional treatment for yeast conditions/bacterial condition or any infectious condition is usually antifungal/antibacterial/antibiotics medications or suppositories. While these medicines may temporarily decrease the number of yeast cells, they do not increase the body’s good microorganisms, nor do they protect the body from future yeast infections. Homeopathic medicines are not antifungal or antibacterial in the conventional sense. Rather, they strengthen a woman’s own defenses, which then help her body fight off the fungal infection itself. By this process they do not create the same type of internal ecological disruption that antibiotics cause.

*WHY TO OPT POSITIVE HOMEOPATHY?

Homeopthic Constitutional care,rather than self care is necessary for treating problems in human body.Holistic care is the need of the century which is waht follow in positive homeopathy

Definately Now a Days, life style modification is very important,homeopathy medicine given after holistic approach can add more ease to patient.

Every case is studied and evaluated by the qualified Homeopathic Physiacian and prescribed after careful consideration of each and every aspects of Patients Physical,Mental,and Emotional dishormony

 

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Vitamins

Vitamin A

Vitamin A can be obtained in two forms:

• preformed retinol (retinyl esters) found in animal derived foods
• carotenoids which are mainly plant derived (beta carotene being the most abundant carotenoid), some of which can be converted to retinol in the body; 6mg of beta carotene is equivalent to 1mg of retinol.

The total vitamin A content of the diet (from both animal and plant sources) is normally expressed as retinol equivalents (RE).

Vitamin A is essential to the normal structure and function of the skin and mucous membranes such as in the eyes, lungs and digestive system. Therefore, it is vital for vision, embryonic development, growth and cellular differentiation, and the immune system.

Deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency is a serious public health problem worldwide,. It can lead to night blindness (impaired adaptation to low-intensity light) and an eye condition called xerophthalmia (dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea) and eventually total blindness. Marginal deficiency contributes to childhood susceptibility to infection, and therefore morbidity and mortality, in both developing and developed countries. Vitamin A deficiency is common in many developing countries especially among young children.

In the UK, frank deficiency is rare but low intakes are relatively common. For example, depending on age and sex between 6% and 20% of children have intakes that are unlikely to be adequate (below the Lower Reference Nutrient intake, LRNI). In adults, intakes tend to be higher although 16% of men aged 19-24 have intakes below the LRNI. In the UK, supplements containing 233µg of vitamin A are recommended for infants and young children from age 1 to 5 years (from 6 months for infants that receive breast milk as their main drink).

Toxicity

Excess retinol during pregnancy can increase the risk of birth defects. As a precautionary measure, women who are pregnant, or who might become pregnant, are advised not to consume high dose vitamin A supplements (>2800-3300 μg/day). Liver and liver products may contain a large amount of vitamin A, so these should also be avoided in pregnancy.

Large amounts of retinol can also cause liver and bone damage. To prevent adverse effects on bones, intakes above 1500 µgrams of retinol equivalents from food or supplements should be avoided. The Food Standards Agency advises that, as a precaution, regular consumers of liver (once a week or more) should not increase their intake of liver or take supplements containing retinol (for example, cod liver oil).

Food sources

Liver, whole milk, cheese, butter, margarine and many reduced fat spreads are dietary sources of retinol. Carrots, dark green leafy vegetables and orange-coloured fruits, e.g. mangoes and apricots are dietary sources of carotenoids. In the UK, the law states that margarine must be fortified with vitamin A (and vitamin D). Vitamin A is also often voluntarily added to reduced fat spreads, as is vitamin D.

Vitamin D

Dietary vitamin D exists as either ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Ergocalciferol (D2) is derived from the UV irradiation of the plant sterol ergosterol, which is widely distributed in plants and fungi. (D3 ) is formed from the action of UV irradiation on 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin of animals including humans.

Dietary sources are relatively insignificant, compared with the synthesis in the skin from exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet rays, because there are not many rich food sources of vitamin D.

Vitamin D is not classically a vitamin but a pro-hormone, acting as a precursor to one of the hormones involved in calcium homeostasis. Cholecalciferol is metabolised to the active steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the liver and kidney. In this form it works as a hormone regulating the amount of calcium absorbed in the intestine. It is also essential for the absorption of phosphorus and for normal bone mineralisation. Vitamin D is also involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Vitamin D is also an activator of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and, associated with this, poor vitamin D status is linked to sarcopenia (age related loss of skeletal muscle) which affects up to 25% of those over the age of 65 years and more than half of those over 85.

Deficiency

Deficiency of vitamin D results in poor calcification of the skeleton and hence skeletal deformity in children (rickets) and it leads to pain and bone fragility in adults (osteomalacia). Osteoporosis is not due to vitamin D deficiency but vitamin D may be beneficial in treatment. In the UK some groups of people such as Asian, black, older, institutionalised and housebound people and those who habitually cover the skin are vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency as a result of limited exposure to sunlight. Poor vitamin D status and rickets in children used to be commonplace in the UK but fortification and supplementation policies following the Second World War made rickets a thing of the past. However, in recent years, cases are again being reported, particularly in some ethnic minority groups from the Middle East and Indian subcontinent. Poor vitamin D status (a blood level of 25hydroxyitaminD below 25nmol/L – judged to be sufficient to prevent rickets) is also commonplace in the white population of the UK, emphasising the importance of balancing the need for sun exposure with the use of sun screen. For example, 36% of men and 38% of women aged 65-84 and living in institutions had low status in the NDNS for this age group. Amongst other age groups, the worst statistics were for young adults aged 19-24 years; 24% males and 28% of females. As sunlight is the major source, status tends to be lower in the winter/ spring than summer/autumn. Many young women enter pregnancy with poor stores of the vitamin.

It is recommended that pregnant and lactating women and people aged 65 years and over take vitamin D supplements (10µg per day). For other ‘at risk’ groups, for example ethnic groups that have limited sun exposure because of their style of dress, supplements may also be necessary. Infants are recommended to receive supplements containing 7.5µg of vitamin D; and these are available under the Healthy Start Scheme.

Toxicity

Excessive dietary vitamin D intake may lead to hypercalaemia (high calcium level in the blood), and some infants are especially sensitive to hypercalcaemia resulting from vitamin D toxicity. It is thought that skin synthesis is self-regulating.

Sources

Oily fish, eggs, fortified cereals and margarine are the main dietary sources of vitamin D. In the UK, the law states that margarine must be fortified with vitamin D (and vitamin A). Vitamin D is also often voluntarily added to reduced fat spreads, as is vitamin A. Human milk contains low levels of vitamin D, but infant formula is fortified with 0.001-0.0025 mg/100kcal.

Most vitamin D is obtained through the action of sunlight on our skin during the summer months. The latitude and strength of the sun in the UK means that the skin can only make vitamin D between 11am and 3pm, during the months of April to October.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a group of eight lipid-soluble compounds synthesised by plants, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Alpha-tocopherol accounts for 90% of the vitamin E in human tissues. Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant and is required to protect cells against oxidative damage from free radicals, for example oxidation of the lipids in cell membranes. Vitamin E content in food is expressed in terms of mg equivalents based on the biological activities of the tocopherols present.

Deficiency

Existence of dietary vitamin E deficiency is not considered to be a problem even in people consuming a relatively poor diet. Deficiency only occurs in people with severe fat malabsorption and rare genetic disorders.

Toxicity

Vitamin E has very low toxicity and humans appear to be able to tolerate high levels of the vitamin without untoward effects (e.g. between 540-970 mg/day). However, at very high doses vitamin E may have negative effects on other fat-soluble vitamins; it exacerbates the effects of vitamin K deficiency and interferes with the absorption of vitamin A.

Food sources

Foods containing large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids will generally contain large amounts of vitamin E, therefore the richest sources of vitamin E are vegetable oils, nuts and seeds. Since vegetable oils are the richest source, deficiency is rare.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is required for the synthesis of several of proteins required for normal blood clotting and bone structure. Vitamin K is synthesised by bacteria in the large bowel and is also present in both plant and animal foods.

Deficiency

Deficiency is rare as vitamin K is widely available from the diet and is also provided by gut bacteria. Thus, deficiency is generally secondary to conditions such as malabsorption or impaired gut synthesis. However, there is growing interest in the role of vitamin K in optimising bone health. Newborn babies up to six weeks old have low levels of vitamin K, which puts them at risk of potentially fatal ‘haemorrhage disease of the newborn’, and is known as vitamin K deficiency bleeding in infancy. Therefore, is it usual to give all newborn infants prophylactic vitamin K.

Toxicity

Few toxic reactions to Vitamin K have been identified.

Food sources

Dietary vitamin K is obtained from green leafy vegetables, dairy products and meat.

Water soluble vitamins

The B vitamins

Thiamin (vitamin B1)

Thiamin is a co-enzyme for several central energy-yielding metabolic pathways, and therefore is required to release energy from carbohydrate. As a result thiamin requirement is related to the amount of energy consumed. Thiamin is also involved in the normal function of the nervous system and other excitable tissues, such as skeletal muscles and the heart.

Deficiency

Deficiency of thiamin causes the peripheral nervous system disease beri-beri. This became a public health issue in the Far East in the nineteenth century with the introduction of highly milled (polished) rice. While beriberi is now rare, it remains a problem in some parts of the world where rice is the staple food. A different condition due to thiamin deficiency, affecting the central nervous system rather than the peripheral is sometimes seen in alcoholics and people with HIV, known as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. This is caused by a combination of low intake and impairment of absorption and utilisation of the vitamin.

Toxicity

There is no evidence of any toxic effect of high doses of thiamin as the body excretes any excess.

Food sources

Whole grains, nuts, meat (especially pork), fruit and vegetables and fortified breakfast cereals are sources of thiamin in the diet. In the UK, white and brown bread flour are fortified with thiamin by law (and also with calcium, iron and niacin).

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

Riboflavin functions as a coenzyme in a wide variety of reactions that take place in the body. Riboflavin is required to release energy from protein, carbohydrate and fat. It is also involved in the transport and metabolism of iron in the body and is needed for the normal structure and function of mucous membranes and the skin.

Deficiency

According to UK surveys, intakes of riboflavin are low in a number of population subgroups, in particular teenage girls (over 20% have intakes below the LRNI), young women (15% of 19-24 year olds below the LRNI) and women over 65 years living at home (10% of those 65-84, 15% of those over 85 years with intakes below the LRNI). A low status of riboflavin is also common but there is no clear deficiency disease because there is very efficient conservation and reutilisation of riboflavin in tissues; therefore deficiency is never fatal. Deficiency is characterised by dryness and cracking of the skin around the mouth and nose and a painful tongue that is red and dry (magenta tongue).

Toxicity

No toxic or adverse reactions to riboflavin in humans have been reported. The body excretes excess riboflavin in urine.

Food sources

Milk, eggs, fortified breakfast cereals, liver, legumes, mushrooms and green vegetables are all sources of riboflavin.

Niacin (nicotinic acid)

Niacin is required for the release of energy from food (it is the precursor to the coezymes NAD and NADP which are fundamental to key reactions in carbohydrate metabolism). As a result niacin requirement is related to the amount of energy consumed. Niacin is also required for the normal function of the skin and mucous membranes and for normal functioning of the nervous system.

Niacin can be synthesised from the essential amino acid tryptophan to meet daily requirements and dietary intake is only necessary when tryptophan metabolism is disturbed or intake of this amino acid is inadequate.

Deficiency

Deficiency of niacin results in the disease pellagra. It is characterized by sun-sensitive skin producing effects similar to severe sunburn. Advanced pellagra also results in dementia and if untreated is fatal. Pellagra is now rare but was a major public health problem in the early part of the last century up until the 1980s in some parts of the world. It was usually seen in communities where maize forms the staple diet as maize contains little tryptophan and the niacin that is present is in an unavailable form.

Toxicity

Reports of niacin/nicotinic acid toxicity in humans have been observed from its use as a treatment of hyperlipidaemia (high blood lipid levels). Adverse effects are dose related and generally subside with a reduction in dose or the cessation of treatment. Acute toxic symptoms include flushing, itching of the skin, nausea and gastrointestinal disturbances.

Food sources

Meat, wheat and maize flour, eggs, dairy products and yeast are all dietary sources of niacin.

Vitamin B(Pyridoxine)

Vitamin B6 comprises 3 forms (vitamers): pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine, and has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids. It is involved in breaking down glycogen and has a role in the modification of steroid hormone action. It is also essential for the formation of red blood cells and the metabolism and transport of iron. Together with folate and vitamin B12, vitamin B6 is required for maintenance of normal blood homocysteine levels. Raised homocysteine is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Deficiency

Deficiency of vitamin B6 is rare because it is widely distributed in foods and is synthesised by the body’s gut flora. Deficiency may only occur as a complication of disease or prolonged administration of certain drugs.

Toxicity

Long-term intake of high dose vitamin B6 from supplements (typically >200mg/day) has been reported to result in sensory nerve damage.

Food sources

Poultry, white fish, milk, eggs, whole grains, soya beans, peanuts and some vegetables are sources of vitamin B6.

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)

Vitamin B12 serves as a cofactor for enzymes involved in the normal function of the nervous system, the formation of red blood cells and for the metabolism of folate. It is also involved in energy production. Together with folate and vitamin B6, vitamin B12 is required for maintenance of normal blood homocysteine levels. Raised homocysteine is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Deficiency

Dietary deficiency is rare in younger people and only occurs among strict vegans. It is more common in older people as a result of impaired absorption, usually due to chronic inflammation of the stomach lining (atrophic gastritis) or lack of intrinsic factor (the substance required for vitamin B12 absorption). Deficiency results in the development of pernicious anaemia, in which red blood cells are enlarged (megaloblastic), and peripheral neurological damage develops.

Toxicity

There are few reports of any adverse effects of high intakes of vitamin B12.

Food sources

Vitamin B12 is found in almost all foods of animal origin. Green plants provide none but it can be synthesized by some algae and bacteria, although the bioavailability of such forms has been disputed. Meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, yeast extract and fortified breakfast cereals are all dietary sources.

Folate/folic acid

The term folate describes a group of derivatives of pteryl glutamic acid. Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate. It is used in supplements and for food fortification.

Folate functions together with vitamin B12 to form healthy red blood cells. It is also required for normal cell division, the normal structure of the nervous system and specifically in the development of the neural tube (which develops into the spinal cord and skull) in the embryo.

There is conclusive evidence that supplements of 400μg/day of folic acid taken before conception and during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy prevent the majority of neural tube defects (e.g. spina bifida) in babies. It is recommended that all women of childbearing age who are planning a pregnancy take a daily supplement as it is difficult to achieve 400μg/day from diet alone.

Together with vitamins B6 and B12, folate is involved with the maintenance of normal blood homocysteine levels. The amino acid homocysteine is an intermediate in folate metabolism and evidence suggests that raised blood homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. High intakes of folate have been found to lower the blood concentration of homocysteine in people genetically at risk of hyperhomocysteinemia and, as a result it has been proposed that folic acid supplementation might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a recent meta-analysis of a number of large trials failed to demonstrate an effect of folic acid on either coronary heart disease or stroke risk.

Deficiency

Deficiency results in megaloblastic anaemia and may be due to poor diet or increased requirement, for example in pregnancy, from prolonged drug use or malabsorption. Megaloblastic anaemia is characterized by the release of immature red blood cell precursors into the circulation due to impairment of the normal process of maturation in the bone marrow. There may also be a low white cell and platelet count in the blood. Deficiency is often accompanied by insomnia, depression, forgetfulness and irritability.

Toxicity

Few adverse effects have been reported although high intakes may mask vitamin B12 deficiency and excessive intakes can cause complications if taken with certain drugs, for example anticonvulsants used in the treatment of epilepsy.

Food sources

Green leafy vegetables, brown rice, peas, oranges, bananas and fortified breakfast cereals are sources of folate.

In various parts of the world folic acid is added by law to flour and bread e.g. USA, Canada and Chile. The UK is yet to commit to this fortification, largely because of concerns that high intakes of folic acid mask vitamin B12 deficiency in older people who are particularly susceptible, and some concerns regarding the relationship between folic acid and cancer. In 2005 the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) reviewed the research to underpin potential folic acid fortification in the UK and recommended that ‘mandatory fortification’ with folic acid should be implemented. Their conclusions were considered by the Food Standards Agency’s Board and it was agreed by the Board that mandatory fortification should go ahead. But before the recommendations were finalized, it was agreed to wait for the findings of ongoing trials investigating the relationship between folic acid and cancer. These trials have now finished and have been considered by SACN: an outcome is awaited.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Vitamin C has antioxidant properties, potentially protecting cells from oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin C is also involved in the synthesis of collagen which is required for the normal structure and function of connective tissues such as skin, cartilage and bones. It is therefore an important nutrient for the healing process. It is also involved in the normal structure and function of blood vessels and neurological function. Vitamin C also increases the absorption of non-haem iron (iron from plant sources) in the gut.

Deficiency

Severe deficiency of vitamin C leads to scurvy. Signs of deficiency do not manifest until previously adequately nourished individuals have been deprived of vitamin C for 4-6 months. Deficiency is associated with fatigue, weakness, aching joints and muscles. Most of the other symptoms of scurvy are due to impaired collagen synthesis and are characterized by bleeding gums, poor wound healing and damage to bone and other tissues.

Toxicity

Acute high doses of vitamin C are occasionally associated with diarrhoea and intestinal discomfort. A significant number of people take high dose (1000mg) vitamin C supplements (the RNI for adults is 40mg/day); however there is no evidence that this either confers any benefit or presents negative health consequences.

Food sources

Fresh fruits especially citrus fruits and berries; green vegetables, peppers and tomatoes are all sources of vitamin C. It is also found in potatoes (especially new potatoes).

The bioavailability and absorption of vitamins

The bioavailability of a vitamin (i.e. how readily it can be absorbed and used by the body) may be influenced by a variety of factors. The proportion of a vitamin absorbed from the diet following consumption can vary, and will depend upon the individual person’s needs, their ability to absorb nutrients, the amount available to them and other components of the diet. For example, vitamin C can enhance the absorption of non-haem iron when foods or drink containing both vitamin C and non-haem iron are consumed in the same meal. Some vitamins, e.g. vitamin C and riboflavin, are labile and susceptible to damage by heat, light, oxygen, enzymes and minerals and these losses may occur during food processing, preparation and storage.

Vitamin supplements

Although most people are able to meet their requirements for vitamins by eating a varied diet, there are certain groups of the population who have higher than normal requirements for some nutrients, e.g. ill people, those taking certain drugs and pregnant women. Such people need to ensure they eat foods rich in particular vitamins and sometimes supplements are advised. Infants and young children are recommended to have supplements of vitamins A, C and D up to age 5 years. Vitamin D supplements are also recommended for older people and pregnant and lactating women. Some women may require additional iron if menstrual losses are high and folic acid is advised for women planning a pregnancy and for pregnant women in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.

– See more at: https://web.archive.org/web/20160417013019/http://www.positivehomeopathy.com/vitamins/#sthash.FECXRvR0.dpuf

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Urinary tract infections in women

The urinary tract consists of various parts that produce,store and get rid of urine.It consists of two kidneys,ureters,bladder and urethra.when the blood reached to the kidneys ,it will filter the waste products,and urine passed through the ureter,bladder and into urethra.

The infection may occur in 2 ways.

  1. Either from kidneys to bladder through blood.
  2. Or from urethra to kidneys ie from downwards.

Risk factors

Female anatomy,sexual intercourse and family history.

The infections are more common in women than men as the urethra is shorter in females.

The infection in the lower urinary tract is called as cystitis.

The infection in the upper urinary tract is called as pyelonephritis.

Causes-

1.Mostly the infections are caused by bacteria like Escherichia coli,kleibsiella,proteus,pseudomonas,enterobacter.

2.spermicide use,independent of sexual frequency increase the risk of infection.

3.frequent participation in sexual intercourse.

4.infection is more common in the early marriage which is called as honeymoon cystitis.

5.use of urinary catheters.

6.hereditary.

7.constipation

8. spinal cord injury

9.anatomic,functional,metabolic abnormalities.

10.in menopause as the oestrogen levels are decreased and loss of protective vaginal flora increase the risk of infection.

Signs and symptoms-

–         Burning while passing urine

–         Frequent urination but quantity less.

–         Pain above the pubic bone

–         Lower back pain

–         Sometimes blood or pus may pass through the urine

–         In upper UTI , fever,flank pain ,nausea,vomiting.

–         In young children, fever is the common symptom and in  infants loss of appetite,vomiting,loss of sleep and often show the signs of jaundice.

–         In older children,urinary incontinence

Diagnosis-

–         Basing on the symptoms

–         Microscopic examination of urine

–         Urine culture

Differential diagnosis

–         Cervicitis

–         Vaginitis

–         Prostaitis

–         Haemorrhagic cystitis

–         Interstitial cystitis ,in which there is chronic pain in the bladder.

 

Homeopathic approach

Whatever the severity of the infection the medicines will show effect on the presenting complaints and after that the resistance power of the patient ie immune system power will increase through the medicines.by that further recurrence or the severity of infection will completely subside.

 

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