The urinary tract consists of various parts that produce,store and get rid of urine.It consists of two kidneys,ureters,bladder and urethra.when the blood reached to the kidneys ,it will filter the waste products,and urine passed through the ureter,bladder and into urethra.
The infection may occur in 2 ways.
- Either from kidneys to bladder through blood.
- Or from urethra to kidneys ie from downwards.
Female anatomy,sexual intercourse and family history.
The infections are more common in women than men as the urethra is shorter in females.
The infection in the lower urinary tract is called as cystitis.
The infection in the upper urinary tract is called as pyelonephritis.
1.Mostly the infections are caused by bacteria like Escherichia coli,kleibsiella,proteus,pseudomonas,enterobacter.
2.spermicide use,independent of sexual frequency increase the risk of infection.
3.frequent participation in sexual intercourse.
4.infection is more common in the early marriage which is called as honeymoon cystitis.
5.use of urinary catheters.
8. spinal cord injury
10.in menopause as the oestrogen levels are decreased and loss of protective vaginal flora increase the risk of infection.
Signs and symptoms-
– Burning while passing urine
– Frequent urination but quantity less.
– Pain above the pubic bone
– Lower back pain
– Sometimes blood or pus may pass through the urine
– In upper UTI , fever,flank pain ,nausea,vomiting.
– In young children, fever is the common symptom and in infants loss of appetite,vomiting,loss of sleep and often show the signs of jaundice.
– In older children,urinary incontinence
– Basing on the symptoms
– Microscopic examination of urine
– Urine culture
– Haemorrhagic cystitis
– Interstitial cystitis ,in which there is chronic pain in the bladder.
Whatever the severity of the infection the medicines will show effect on the presenting complaints and after that the resistance power of the patient ie immune system power will increase through the medicines.by that further recurrence or the severity of infection will completely subside.